In the case of administration, there are many explanations from many authors whose definition were based on personal perceptions and environmental factors.
The administration is an inevitable phenomenon in any organization where a piece of work is done through the efforts of people in order to achieve a given objective. Presthus as cited in Obikeze 2004 defined administration as an activity concerned with the means of carrying out prescribed ends. For him, the administration is a process designed to achieve the targeted goals of an organization.
Stephen Robbins 1985 saw administration as the universal process of efficiently getting activities completed through people. He further says that it could be concerned with the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling for the accomplishment of organizational ends (objectives).
In his definition it encompasses basic elements as they apply to the contemporary administration i.e to say that activities must be directed towards the achievement of certain objectives, there is a need for efficient utilization of scarce resources and people must be involved in the performance of the organizational task.
Balogun (1963) see the administration as any action that is directed to the analysis of policies, identification of options, implementation of programmes, efficient allocation of resources and the use of people to achieve organizational goals and consideration of enduring environment under which the actions take place. Its emphasis is placed on efficiency in goal attainment and environmental factors which affect administration.
The administration is the systematic implementation of policies and programmes of organizations, whether private or public. It is the process of planning and harmonizing efforts to achieve organizational goals. It involves the coordination of men, money and material resources within an organization for the accomplishment of the common objective.
Administration takes place within the context of an organization like schools, the Church, the army, University, industries or business firms which consist of human utilize resources to attain organizational objectives. The Managing Director of an industrial performs administrative functions in the senses that each has under his subordinate staff with assigned functions and responsibilities for the accomplishment of organizational goals.
True/true for the objectives of organizations to be realized, it requires conscious planning, organizing, commanding, coordinator, budgeting, and control of financial and material resources.
In public administration, each author’s definition is based on his environmental and circumstantial perspective. The definitions offered below are not exhaustive but representatives of many other definitions on the subject matter.
Asogwa and Omemma (2001: 359) defined public administration as these activities involve in carrying out the policies and programmes of government. It entails planning, organizing, directing, coordinating of government operations.
Willougby 1927: one of the earliest writers in this field saw public Administration as the functions of actually administering the law as declared by a legislature and interpreted by the judicial organ of government.
Gulick and Urwick 1937 defined it as the function that has to do with the accomplishment of defined objectives. Indeed Gulick and Urwick introduced and popularized the principles of public Admin known with the acronym “POSDCORB.
This stands for planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, budgeting and controlling the administration growth and development. Administration cannot take places without organization.
Therefore the administration works together in order to achieve development and growth within the organization
Nnoli (1986) conceived public Administration as the machinery and integral processes through which the government perform its functions. Also says that it is a pattern of routinized activities involving decision making, planning, advising, coordinating, negotiation, conciliation, arbitration, command, and data gathering through which the government carries out its responsibilities.
Leonard White (1966) as cited in Obikeze (2004) defined public Administration as all those operations having for that purpose the fulfilment or enforcement of public policy.
Ademolemkun 1983 saw public Administration as a practice and as knowledge when he defined it as both activities concerned with the management of government business and the study of these activities.
Woodrow 1887 defined public Administration as the most obvious part of a government which has the composite of all the laws, regulations, practices, relationships, codes and customs that prevails at any time in any jurisdiction for the fulfilment or execution of public policies. It is the instrumentality for public policy initiation and implementation.
Obikeze 2004 said that public administration is a process of formulation and implementation of strategies policies and programmes by public officials for the satisfaction of social goals and public welfare of the people.
Finally, public administration is concerned with the management of organizations in pursuit of desired public goals and objective. The ultimate goal of the public administration is how to maximize public interest through efficient and effective administrative institution.
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